PSYCHOLOGICAL JOURNAL <p>'Psychological journal' is a peer-reviewed scientific review, published by<strong><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><a href=""> Association pour la Promotion des Sciences et des Innovations</a></span></strong> &nbsp;in conjunction with&nbsp;<strong><a href="">H. S. Kostyuk Institute of Psychology of the National Academy of Educational Sciences of Ukraine</a></strong> from 2015 year, 12 times a year (from 2019).</p> <p>The scientific review is listed in Special edition of scientific professional publications of Ukraine (Resolution of the Ministry of Education of Ukraine № 409 of 17.03.2020, Annex 1), and it has The Certificate of state registration of the printed source of mass media in Ukraine (КВ &nbsp;№ &nbsp;24063-13903 &nbsp;ПР&nbsp;of 22.07.2019). Attributed ISSN is 2414-0023 for printed journal and 2414-004X for its electronic version.</p> <p>Editorial Board of the Collection consists of at least 42% of international members. The scientific review also publishes the authors with foreign affiliation.</p> <p>Program goals (basic principles) include the development and dissemination of scientific knowledge in the field of psychology. The collection of research papers is published for charitable purposes and intended for free distribution.</p> <p>The scientific review publishes materials, which cover problems of psychological science and practice, promote their wide distribution and overall development of psychological knowledge. The aim of publication is to provide a deeper integration and close cooperation between science and practice, promote the introduction of new scientific and applied research, publish papers of renowned and respected authors and also the papers of young researchers.</p> en-US <p><strong>Copyright Notice</strong></p> <p>Articles in the Psychological Journal are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License International CC-BY that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal. For more detailed information, please, fallow the link -&nbsp;</p> (Klimovskyi Stanislav) (Klimovskyi Stanislav) Sun, 13 Sep 2020 11:31:24 +0300 OJS 60 SELF-REAL AND SELF-IDEAL IMAGES OF WOMEN HAVING ABUSIVE RELATIONSHIPS <p>The research on the Self-real and Self-ideal images of women having abusive relationships is important due to theoretical and practical challenges of modern society. Women’s role in society, the specifics of interpersonal relationships, the psychological aspects of abusive relationships are the subject of scientific searches for many national and foreign researchers. The article purpose is to determine the features, formation and manifestation of Self-real and Self-ideal images of women having abusive relationships.</p> <p>An individual’s self-concept is fundamental for the formation of his or her personality. Four formation statuses for a self image are considered: achieved identity, identification moratorium, unpaid identity, diffuse identity. We have analyzed the features and factors determining the formation of three modalities of self-concept: Self-real, Self-ideal and Self-mirrored. Attention is drawn to the formation of four components: cognitive, affective, conative and leading life meanings, and their manifestations during social interactions. Basing on the performed literary review, we have determined the manipulative mechanisms in abusive relationships, namely, physical and psychological violence, the latter means offensive language, social or economic isolation. The analyzed theoretical models of abusive relationships have revealed that women’s self-esteem is significantly reduced under psychological violence characteristic for abusive relationships. By creating a big gap between a woman’s Self-real and the Self-ideal images, her abuser introduces her into a state of helplessness and dependence.</p> <p>The further research will focus on an empirical analysis of the formation of Self-real and Self-ideal images of women having abusive relationships, self-esteem of women having abusive relationships as a factor influencing their self-concept.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Tamara Klimash ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 13 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0300 MENTAL DEFENSE AND COPING STRATEGIES AS COMPONENTS OF THE SYSTEM OF AN INDIVIDUAL’S SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL ADAPTATION <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The article analyses theoretically the phenomena of mental defense mechanisms and coping in psychology, their importance for self-regulation and an individual’s socio-psychological adaptation.</p> <p>The examined problem is not entirely new, but the huge number of scientific works indicates its importance, immensity, interest for scientists and absence of its final solution.</p> <p>The study of mental defenses and coping strategies, their features and main types, which number is still increasing, continues since the time when S.&nbsp;Freud introduced the "mental defense" concept into science and A. Freud described the main defense psyche mechanisms (as for coping strategies, the works started from its interpretation by R.&nbsp;Lazarus and S.&nbsp;Folkman), however, their generalized understanding is absent today, so their further analysis is needed.</p> <p>An individual’s mental defense is understood as a system of mental mechanisms protecting him/her from negative and psycho-traumatic emotions and feelings caused by different life difficulties, problems and various conflicts that lead to a crisis in self-acceptance and self-respect because of changed perceptions or attitudes to anxious events and situations; thus the received information is transformed and a pseudo-reality is created in order to weaken destructive influence of the reality on the individual’s social and psychological adaptation and the stability of their internal regulation; and coping as a process of relatively long-term conscious overcoming by the individual of the impacts of psychologically traumatic situations or events; such process copes with the problem / threat causing the psychological trauma.</p> <p>We stress that, on the background of scientists’ constant, long-term attempts to distinguish the concepts of mental defense and coping and to find out which of them is more general, we focus on their common characteristics: 1) they help an individual to adapt to the problematic situation and save their mental well-being; 2) they may have a complex structure, shape styles and strategies (defense and coping) as a system combining the interrelated protection or coping mechanisms. However, we consider the psychic defense mechanisms and coping are situational in their essence: their effective application in one situation does not mean their similar effectiveness in another; but a choice of coping strategies and mental defenses depends on a particular individual.</p> <p>Even taking into account the obvious difference between coping and mental defense mechanisms, we conclude that they are related mental phenomena and are combined into a certain systemic integrity in order to restore an individual’s mental balance and socio-psychological adaptation by the way inherent for the each examined phenomenon.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Yan Chaplak, Yaroslava Andreeva, Halyna Chuyko ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 12 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0300 INFORMATION OVERLOAD: THE PSYCHOLOGICAL AREA <p>Among the variety of synonymously similar scientific concepts used in psychological research (cognitive overload, sensory overload, knowledge overload, information fatigue syndrome, cognitive information load, information overload, cognitive load), we chose the concept of “information overload” for categorical analysis, because it defines the most holistically and complete the corresponding psychological phenomenon, meaningfully reflecting and naming significant realities. The essential signs of this phenomenon are: the external one – “what caused the state of tension” (informational message) – and the internal one - “what mental state appears as a result” (overload). Information overload is defined as a state of an individual’s mental stress caused by received excessive information messages; this excessiveness is experienced subjectively as a stressful situation associated with worsened efficiency of the individual’s cognitive mental processes and causes a mental protective blocking of high-quality deep intellectual processing of incoming information and its transformation into full-fledged personal knowledge.</p> <p>In the context of multi-sensory perception by a media consumer of modern informational sources, two processes are important: coding by an addressee and decoding by an addressee of an information message; accordingly, in the process of media-perceptual communication, information overload becomes a barrier to knowledge formation by an individual perceiving certain information flows.</p> <p>The content and nature of information overload as a psychological phenomenon is revealed in the measurement of the four aspects we have identified: cognitive, behavioral, emotional-motivational and competence.</p> <p>At the cognitive aspect, information overload is considered in the context of an individual's cognitive activities, affected by the functional limitations of cognitive processes (perception, attention, memory, thinking), and is determined through an individual's cognitive style.</p> <p>At the psychological dimension of the behavioral aspect, information overload is interpreted as a way for mass consciousness manipulating with the political or consumer-related context for individuals’ behavior modeling, in particular, during decision making.</p> <p>At the emotional-motivational aspect, information overload is defined as the emotional state of mental stress associated with unexpected and unfavorable informational influences, accompanied by a deterioration of an individual’s professional efficiency.</p> <p>At the psychological dimension of the competence-based aspect, information overload is interpreted as a psychological threat to an individual’s mental health and is defined as underdeveloped media literacy, as a result of used ineffective strategies by a media consumer in modern mediacommunication. As for counteraction, it is necessary to form media literacy of information consumers, increase their personal self-efficacy.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Sophia Grabovska, Olena Musakovska ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 31 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0300 THE PSYCHOLINGUISTIC CHARACTERISTICS IDENTIFIED AT STUDENTS’ VALUE ORIENTATIONS BY THE MEANS OF METAPHOR <p>The article<strong> aim</strong> is to identify and analyse the individual psycholinguistic features, value determinants of speech production via metaphorical image interpretations made by students in different art specialties.</p> <p>To achieve this goal, the following <strong>methods</strong> were used: analysis, synthesis, comparison and generalization, classification, verbal and projective methods, a free associative experiment, the content and intent analysis, the methods of quantitative and qualitative analysis, the structural method.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>. The social nature of speaking is stressed; a speech event is understood as an external result of an individual’s internal processes of perception, mental organization, his/her socialization and cognition. The role of metaphorical methods for cognition of unconscious value determinants is substantiated. An emphasis is laid on the emergence and linguistic presentation of mental and value models: metaphorization is regarded as a hidden mechanism and a driving force of the language ontogenesis. The performed psycholinguistic analysis of students’ values as a component of their worldview as artists, represented through their speech constructs, revealed their individual semantic content for used words.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>. Basing on the analysed data from the used projective and verbal methods, we have revealed: 1) conceptual metaphors reflecting the cognitive function and embodying certain value groups; 2) the students’ psycholinguistic features and priority values, value projections onto their verbal self-presentation of their metaphorical image of “Self-book”: lexical saturation, emotional richness, egocentrism (“Adaptation” group); sociocentrism, emotionality, figurative and value elements of professional concepts, images of the future, the role of the social environment, the need for psychological support and harmonious life (“Socialization” group); detailing, egocentrism, moral and aesthetic values (“Individualization” group); predominance of the verbal, interrogative and imperative modalities in the metaphors presented by the students, their egocentric motivational orientations, generalized and specific nature of the used lexical units.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Olena Kostiuchenko, Maryna Bryl ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 31 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0300 A PERSONAL MYTH: PHILOSOPHICAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PYCHOTHERAPEUTIC ASPECTS <p>The article analyses psychologically the personal myth phenomenon and the possibilities of its psychotherapeutic use. The essential features of the myth, associated with the emergence of psychological effects, relevant to the goals of psychological assistance were identified. They include: an initial appearance of characters, images, events; miraculousness because any restriction can be lifted under certain conditions; representation of the mythical characters as a role model; the myth serving as a priori streamliner for perception. Immersion of consciousness into the mythological reality is associated with important therapeutic mechanisms, such as: hope instilling, universality of experiences, existential factors; life event perception can loss its literalness. We have shown that the search for personal developmental guidelines and triggering the appropriate motivational mechanisms are ensured mostly due to the mainstreaming of the pre-logic, mythological level of consciousness responsible for a person’s creativity. A personal myth is defined as a system of core personal meanings formed by synthesizing the content of cultural and social myths with personal experiences, manifested and transformed through narratives and acting as a sensual perspective on the person’s life project. The main functions of personal myths are: socio-adaptive, meaning-forming, regulatory, axiological and integrative. We have shown that, in the psycholinguistic aspect, a personal myth is a text that serves as a mechanism of interactions between generalized cultural meanings and core personal meanings. The hypothesis has been developed that specific discourse analysis methods correspond to the content of psychotherapeutic interactions; these methods allow us to retain a client’s meaningfull integrity. Step-by-step tasks were highlighted for work with a client’s personal mythology. These are: finding a principle that organizes a client’s subjective experiences and revealing the personal myth through deconstruction of the client’s story text; assessing the constructiveness/destructiveness of its actual impact on the client’s life; helping the client to rethink the key elements of their personal myth and to choose together with them the mythological constructions corresponding to their actual problem; helping the client build practical life strategies on the basis of the rethought personal myth; supporting the implementation of these strategies.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Liudmyla Krupelnytska ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 31 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0300