This article is devoted to the study of personality traits in the light of the achievements of modern neuroscience. We focus our attention on the extraversion, the key component of the "Big five" personality model. The data relating to psychogenetics, neurophysiology and neurochemistry of extraversion are summarized. Neuropsychological mechanisms of nature of extraversion are investigated in the context of psychological theories of personality. According to our results we state that building a "hedonictic profile" according to inherited and acquired specific characteristics of reward processing of an individual, can be valuable both in theoretical and clinical context. There is a connection between psychogenetic studies of extroversion, neuropsychological approach to the extraversion as a personality trait (as well as its aspects: assertiveness and enthusiasm) and the individual characteristics of the processing of pleasurable stimulus. The components of the "hedonistic profile" of the personality are defined in this study, which allow to assess individual differences in sensitivity to reward.
The individual variability of extraversion is represented in a continuum from pronounced anhedonia (minimum level of extraversion) up to the harmonious ability to experience pleasure. Obviously, the pole of extraversion is more adaptive, indicating the desirable direction of personal development or possible psychotherapeutic efforts. Most of accessible clinical cases of depression and related disorders, described in special sources, demonstrate a deficit of taking into account individual parameters of extraversion, both at the level of its aspects and in terms of interaction with reward over time. This allows us to figure out how to build so called "individual hedonistic profiles" of the personality. In this study, the following variants of profiles were defined and described: anhedonic profile (reduced sensitivity to pleasure observed at all stages of the processing of hedonistic stimuli; increased risk of abuse), narcissistic profile (assertiveness significantly outweighs enthusiasm; anticipation and expectation of interaction with the stimulus is much stronger than the pleasure during its real consumption and at the stage of satisfaction, so called "aftertaste"), abulic profile (assertiveness is much lower than enthusiasm, reduced activity of the Behavioral Approach System - BAS; expectation is low but "on-line" consumption is pleasurable), compulsive profile (increased assertiveness prevails at the stage of interaction with the stimulus; consumption is repeated more and more, but satisfaction does not occur) and harmonious profile (adaptive version, which optimally combines assertiveness and enthusiasm; a balanced combination of hedonism and self-restraint; evenly distribution of pleasure experience in time).
Vasyutynsʹkyy, V. O., Byelavina, T. I. & Vinkov, V. YU. (2016). Sotsialʹna psykholohiya bidnosti: monohrafiya (za red. V. O. Vasyutynsʹkoho) [Social psychology of poverty: a monograph (edited by V. O. Vasyutynskyi)] . Milenium. [in Ukrainian]
Lytvyn, S. V. (2019). Tolerantnistʹ do nevyznachenosti yak psykholohichnyy konstrukt [Tolerance to uncertainty as a psychological construct]. Psykholohichnyy chasopys, (1), 90-107. [in Ukrainian]
Lytvyn, S. V., Malysheva, K. O., & Morozova-Larina, O. I. (2017). Neyropsykholohichni korelyaty konstruktiv teoriyi osobystosti Karla Rodzhersa [Neuropsychological correlates of Carl Rogers' personality theory constructs]. Zbirnyk naukovykh pratsʹ" Problemy suchasnoyi psykholohiyi", (35). [in Ukrainian]
Malysheva, K., & Lytvyn, S. (2021). Neyropsykholohichnyy analiz pryrody neyrotyzmu: svidchennya na korystʹ heterohennosti konstrukta [A neuropsychological analysis of the nature of neuroticism: Evidence for construct heterogeneity]. Psykholohichnyy chasopys, 7(9), 23-35. https://doi.org/10.31108/1.2021.7.9.2 [in Ukrainian]
Skovoroda, H. S. (1973). Povne zibrannya tvoriv: u dvokh tomakh [Complete collection of works: in two volumes]. Naukova dumka. [in Ukrainian]
Abeele, M. M. V., Halfmann, A., & Lee, E. W. (2022). Drug, demon, or donut? Theorizing the relationship between social media use, digital well-being and digital disconnection. Current Opinion in Psychology.
Ahima, R. S., & Antwi, D. A. (2008). Brain regulation of appetite and satiety. Endocrinology and metabolism clinics of North America, 37(4), 811–823. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2008.08.005
Akpan, B. (2020). Classical and Operant Conditioning—Ivan Pavlov; Burrhus Skinner. In Science Education in Theory and Practice (pp. 71-84). Springer, Cham.
Allen, K. N., & van der Zwan, R. (2019). The myth of left-vs right-brain learning. International Journal of Innovation, Creativity and Change, 5(1), 189-200.
Allen, T. A., & DeYoung, C. G. (2017). Personality neuroscience and the five factor model. Oxford handbook of the five factor model, 319-352. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199352487.013.26
Arns, M., Heinrich, H., & Strehl, U. (2014). Evaluation of neurofeedback in ADHD: the long and winding road. Biological psychology, 95, 108-115.
Bechara, A., & Damasio, A. R. (2005). The somatic marker hypothesis: A neural theory of economic decision. Games and economic behavior, 52(2), 336-372.
Bloom, P. (2010). How pleasure works: The new science of why we like what we like. Random House.
Blum, K., Baron, D., Lott, L., Ponce, J. V., Siwicki, D., Boyett, B., Steinberg, B., Modestino, E. J., Fried, L., Hauser, M., Simpatico, T., Downs, B. W., McLaughlin, T., Hajela, R., & Badgaiyan, R. D. (2020). In Search of Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS)-free Controls: The "Holy Grail" in Genetic Addiction Risk Testing. Current psychopharmacology, 9(1), 7–21.
Boyden, E. S., Zhang, F., Bamberg, E., Nagel, G., & Deisseroth, K. (2005). Millisecond-timescale, genetically targeted optical control of neural activity. Nature neuroscience, 8(9), 1263-1268.
Buss, D. M. (2019). Evolutionary psychology: The new science of the mind. Routledge.
Cain, S. (2016). Quiet Power: Growing Up as an Introvert in a World that Can't Stop Talking. Penguin UK.
Campbell, A. A., & Wisco, B. E. (2021). Respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity in anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder: A review of literature. Clinical Psychology Review, 87, 102034.
Campbell, A. A., Wisco, B. E., Silvia, P. J., & Gay, N. G. (2019). Resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia and posttraumatic stress disorder: A meta-analysis. Biological Psychology, 144, 125-135.
Cappas, N. M., Andres-Hyman, R., & Davidson, L. (2005). What Psychotherapists Can Begin to Learn from Neuroscience: Seven Principles of a Brain-Based Psychotherapy. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 42(3), 374. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-3188.8.131.524
Cavanagh, J. F., Frank, M. J., Klein, T. J., & Allen, J. J. (2010). Frontal theta links prediction errors to behavioral adaptation in reinforcement learning. NeuroImage, 49(4), 3198–3209. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.11.080
Chan, R. C., Shi, Y. F., Lai, M. K., Wang, Y. N., Wang, Y., & Kring, A. M. (2012). The Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale (TEPS): exploration and confirmation of factor structure in a healthy Chinese sample. PloS one, 7(4), e35352.
Choudhury, S., & Slaby, J. (Eds.). (2016). Critical neuroscience: A handbook of the social and cultural contexts of neuroscience. John Wiley & Sons.
Clark, W. R., & Grunstein, M. (2004). Are we hardwired?: The role of genes in human behavior. Oxford University Press on Demand.
Cozolino, L. (2017). The neuroscience of psychotherapy: healing the social brain (Norton Series on Interpersonal Neurobiology). WW Norton & Company.
Csikszentmihalyi, M., Khosla, S., & Nakamura, J. (2016). Flow at work. The Wiley Blackwell Handbook of the Psychology of Positivity and Strengths‐Based Approaches at Work, 99-109.
Damasio, A. R. (1996). The somatic marker hypothesis and the possible functions of the prefrontal cortex. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 351(1346), 1413-1420.
Damasio, A. R. (2006). Descartes' error. Random House.
Delgado, M. M., & Sulloway, F. J. (2017). Attributes of conscientiousness throughout the animal kingdom: An empirical and evolutionary overview. Psychological bulletin, 143(8), 823.De
DeYoung, C. G., Grazioplene, R. G., & Allen, T. A. (2021). The neurobiology of personality. In O. P. John & R. W. Robins (Eds.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (pp. 193–216). The Guilford Press.
Edwards, C. J., Cella, M., Tarrier, N., & Wykes, T. (2015). Investigating the empirical support for therapeutic targets proposed by the temporal experience of pleasure model in schizophrenia: A systematic review. Schizophrenia Research, 168(1-2), 120-144.
Eysenck, H. J., & Eysenck, S. B. (1976). Eysenck personality questionnaire. Educational and industrial testing service.
Falk, A., Kosse, F., & Pinger, P. (2019). Re-revisiting the marshmallow test: A direct comparison of studies by Shoda, Mischel, and Peake (1990) and Watts, Duncan, and Quan (2018). Psychological Science.
Figee, M., Vink, M., de Geus, F., Vulink, N., Veltman, D. J., Westenberg, H., & Denys, D. (2011). Dysfunctional reward circuitry in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Biological psychiatry, 69(9), 867-874.
Frye, R. (2009). Cognitive epidemiology of ethnic health and the CHRM2 vagal vigour hypothesis. Nature Precedings, 1-1.
Gard, D. E., Gard, M. G., Kring, A. M., & John, O. P. (2006). Anticipatory and consummatory components of the experience of pleasure: a scale development study. Journal of research in personality, 40(6), 1086-1102.
Genné-Bacon, E. A. (2014). Thinking evolutionarily about obesity. The Yale journal of biology and medicine, 87(2), 99.
Gold, B. P., Mas-Herrero, E., Zeighami, Y., Benovoy, M., Dagher, A., & Zatorre, R. J. (2019). Musical reward prediction errors engage the nucleus accumbens and motivate learning. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 116(8), 3310-3315.
Gold, P. W., & Kadriu, B. (2019). A major role for the lateral habenula in depressive illness: physiologic and molecular mechanisms. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 10, 320.
Goldberg, E. (2021). Creativity Understood: From Neuromythology to Neuroscience. American Journal of Psychology, 134 (1), 111-114. doi: 10.5406/amerjpsyc.134.1.0111
Goleman, D., & Davidson, R. J. (2017). Altered traits: Science reveals how meditation changes your mind, brain, and body. Penguin.
Guyenet, S. J. (2017). The hungry brain: outsmarting the instincts that make us overeat. Macmillan.
Hebb, D. O. (2005). The organization of behavior: A neuropsychological theory. Psychology Press.
Hildebrand, D., Rubin, D., Hadi, R., & Kramer, T. (2021). Flavor Fatigue: Cognitive Depletion Influences Consumer Enjoyment of Complex Flavors. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 31(1), 103-111.
Hopson, J. (2001). Behavioral game design. Gamasutra, April, 27, 2001.
Hu, H., Cui, Y., & Yang, Y. (2020). Circuits and functions of the lateral habenula in health and in disease. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 21(5), 277-295.
Jach, H. K., & Smillie, L. D. (2019). To fear or fly to the unknown: Tolerance for ambiguity and Big Five personality traits. Journal of Research in Personality, 79, 67-78.
Jennings, H. (1906). Behavior of lower animals. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Jensen, R. (2001). The dream society: How the coming shift from information to imagination will transform your business. McGraw Hill Professional.
Jung, C. G. (1921). Psychologische typen. Rascher.
Kandel, E. R. (2007). In search of memory: The emergence of a new science of mind. WW Norton & Company.
Kim, H. Y., & Pettit, N. C. (2019). A cross‐cultural review and perspective on status striving. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 13(7), e12488.
Koob, G. F., & Volkow, N. D. (2016). Neurobiology of addiction: a neurocircuitry analysis. The lancet. Psychiatry, 3(8), 760–773. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(16)00104-8
Koob, G. F., Arends, M. A., & Le Moal, M. (2014). Drugs, addiction, and the brain. Academic Press.
Kristeller, J., & Bowman, A. (2015). The joy of half a cookie: Using mindfulness to lose weight and end the struggle with food. TarcherPerigee.
Kuhl, J., Quirin, M., & Koole, S. L. (2015). Being someone: The integrated self as a neuropsychological system. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 9(3), 115-132.
Lembke, A. (2021). Dopamine nation: Finding balance in the age of indulgence. Penguin.
Leuzinger-Bohleber, M., Arnold, S., & Solms, M. (Eds.). (2016). The unconscious: A bridge between psychoanalysis and cognitive neuroscience. Taylor & Francis.
Lieberman, D. (2020). Exercised: The science of physical activity, rest and health. Penguin UK.
Lieberman, D. Z., & Long, M. E. (2018). The Molecule of More: How a Single Chemical in Your Brain Drives Love, Sex, and Creativity--and Will Determine the Fate of the Human Race. BenBella Books.
Listopad, I. W., Michaelsen, M. M., Werdecker, L., & Esch, T. (2021). Bio-Psycho-Socio-Spirito-Cultural Factors of Burnout: A Systematic Narrative Review of the Literature. Frontiers in Psychology, 12.
Lo, M. T., Hinds, D. A., Tung, J. Y., Franz, C., Fan, C. C., Wang, Y., ... & Chen, C. H. (2017). Genome-wide analyses for personality traits identify six genomic loci and show correlations with psychiatric disorders. Nature genetics, 49(1), 152-156.
Luck, S. J., & Kappenman, E. S. (Eds.). (2011). The Oxford handbook of event-related potential components. Oxford university press.
Marzbani, H., Marateb, H. R., & Mansourian, M. (2016). Neurofeedback: a comprehensive review on system design, methodology and clinical applications. Basic and clinical neuroscience, 7(2), 143.
McWilliams, N. (2011). Psychoanalytic diagnosis: Understanding personality structure in the clinical process. Guilford Press.
Mischel, W. (2015). The marshmallow test: Why self-control is the engine of success. New York: Little, Brown.
Mlodinow, L. (2013). Subliminal: How your unconscious mind rules your behavior. Vintage.
Morita, K., & Kato, A. (2018). A Neural Circuit Mechanism for the Involvements of Dopamine in Effort-Related Choices: Decay of Learned Values, Secondary Effects of Depletion, and Calculation of Temporal Difference Error. eNeuro, 5(1), ENEURO.0021-18.2018. https://doi.org/10.1523/ENEURO.0021-18.2018
Motschnig-Pitrik, R., & Lux, M. (2008). The person-centered approach meets neuroscience: Mutual support for CR Rogers's and A. Damasio's theories. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 48(3), 287-319.
National Institute of Mental Health (2022a). NIMH research domain criteria (RDoC) project positive valence systems: workshop proceedings. Available online at: https://www.nimh.nih.gov/research/research-funded-by-nimh/rdoc/positive-valence-systems-workshop-proceedings [Accessed June 28, 2022].).
National Institute of Mental Health (2022b). The RDoC Matrix. Available online at: https://www.nimh.nih.gov/research/research-funded-by-nimh/rdoc/constructs/rdoc-matrix [Accessed June 28, 2022].).
Panksepp, J., & Biven, L. (2012). The archaeology of mind: neuroevolutionary origins of human emotions (Norton series on interpersonal neurobiology). WW Norton & Company.
Poppa, T., & Bechara, A. (2018). The somatic marker hypothesis: revisiting the role of the ‘body-loop’in decision-making. Current opinion in behavioral sciences, 19, 61-66.
Porges, S. W. (2021). Polyvagal theory: a biobehavioral journey to sociality. Comprehensive Psychoneuroendocrinology, 7, 100069.
Porges, S. W., & Dana, D. (2018). Clinical applications of the polyvagal theory: The emergence of polyvagal-informed therapies (Norton series on interpersonal neurobiology). WW Norton & Company.
Porges, S. W., & Kolacz, J. (2018). Neurocardiology through the Lens of the Polyvagal Theory. Neurocardiology: Pathophysiological Aspects and Clinical Implications.
Power, M. L., & Schulkin, J. (2013). The evolution of obesity. JHU Press.
Preedy, V. R., Watson, R. R., & Martin, C. R. (Eds.). (2011). Handbook of behavior, food and nutrition. Springer Science & Business Media.
Pryor, K. (2019). Don't Shoot the Dog: The Art of Teaching and Training. Simon & Schuster.
Schore, A. N. (2015). Affect regulation and the origin of the self: The neurobiology of emotional development. Routledge.
Schwarz, B. (2004). The paradox of choice. Why More is Less, Available at Harper Collins e-books.
Shany, O., Singer, N., Gold, B. P., Jacoby, N., Tarrasch, R., Hendler, T., & Granot, R. (2019). Surprise-related activation in the nucleus accumbens interacts with music-induced pleasantness. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 14(4), 459-470.
Speed, B. C., Goldstein, B. L., & Goldfried, M. R. (2018). Assertiveness training: A forgotten evidence‐based treatment. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 25(1), e12216.
Stahl, S. M. (2021). Stahl's essential psychopharmacology: neuroscientific basis and practical applications. Cambridge university press.
Starobinski, J. (2013). L'encre de la mélancolie. Média Diffusion.
Stein, D. J., Newman, T. K., Savitz, J., & Ramesar, R. (2006). Warriors versus worriers: the role of COMT gene variants. CNS spectrums, 11(10), 745-748.
Swinburn, B. A., Sacks, G., Hall, K. D., McPherson, K., Finegood, D. T., Moodie, M. L., & Gortmaker, S. L. (2011). The global obesity pandemic: shaped by global drivers and local environments. The Lancet, 378(9793), 804-814.
Talvitie, V. (2018). Freudian unconscious and cognitive neuroscience: From unconscious fantasies to neural algorithms. Routledge.
Tartar, J. L., Cabrera, D., Knafo, S., Thomas, J. D., Antonio, J., & Peacock, C. A. (2020). The “warrior” COMT Val/Met genotype occurs in greater frequencies in mixed martial arts fighters relative to controls. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, 19(1), 38.
Tasman, A., Kay, J., Lieberman, J. A., First, M. B., & Maj, M. (2015). Psychiatry (4rd ed., 2 vols.). Chichester, West Sussex, UK, and Hoboken, NJ. Wiley Blackwell.
Tunbridge, E. M., Narajos, M., Harrison, C. H., Beresford, C., Cipriani, A., & Harrison, P. J. (2019). Which dopamine polymorphisms are functional? Systematic review and meta-analysis of COMT, DAT, DBH, DDC, DRD1–5, MAOA, MAOB, TH, VMAT1, and VMAT2. Biological Psychiatry, 86(8), 608-620.
Van den Berg, S. M., de Moor, M. H., Verweij, K. J., Krueger, R. F., Luciano, M., Arias Vasquez, A., ... & Boomsma, D. I. (2016). Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for extraversion: Findings from the genetics of personality consortium. Behavior genetics, 46(2), 170-182.
Vohs, K. D., & Baumeister, R. F. (Eds.). (2016). Handbook of self-regulation: Research, theory, and applications. Guilford Publications.
Watts, T. W., Duncan, G. J., & Quan, H. (2018). Revisiting the marshmallow test: A conceptual replication investigating links between early delay of gratification and later outcomes. Psychological science, 29(7), 1159-1177.
Wichers, M., Aguilera, M., Kenis, G., Krabbendam, L., Myin-Germeys, I., Jacobs, N., ... & Van Os, J. (2008). The catechol-O-methyl transferase Val158Met polymorphism and experience of reward in the flow of daily life. Neuropsychopharmacology, 33(13), 3030-3036.
Yaroslavsky, I., Rottenberg, J., & Kovacs, M. (2014). Atypical patterns of respiratory sinus arrhythmia index an endophenotype for depression. Development and psychopathology, 26(4 Pt 2), 1337–1352. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579414001060
Yeomans, M. R., Chambers, L., Blumenthal, H., & Blake, A. (2008). The role of expectancy in sensory and hedonic evaluation: The case of smoked salmon ice-cream. Food quality and preference, 19(6), 565-573.
Zimbardo, P. G. (1977) Shyness: What it is, what to do about it. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Articles in the Psychological Journal are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License International CC-BY that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal. For more detailed information, please, fallow the link - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/