The article focuses on social anxiety issues and predisposition to social anxiety disorder during the COVID-19 pandemic, namely the study of dysfunctional schemes as predictors of psycho-emotional distress and social dysfunction in terms of adaptation to new education requirements under quarantine restrictions.
The relevance of the chosen topic is determined by the fact that the COVID-19 pandemic, appropriate quarantine restrictions, and changes in educational activity have become a significant challenge to maintain psychological well-being among students. Physical ("social") distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic can be expected to make it easier for people to avoid communication while providing short-term relief. On the other hand, there is strengthening by avoiding behavioral and cognitive strategies as meaningful. Social constraints, which allow more avoidance of social judgment, also mask persistent functional impairments associated with pre-existing levels of social anxiety.
The analysis's emphasis is on expectations of negative social evaluation, denial of one's own needs, and uncertainty about the future in the context of distance learning may increase vulnerability to social anxiety disorder upon completion of quarantine restrictions and the need to return to everyday life.
The author summarizes that analysis of the psycho-emotional discomfort associated with social anxiety among students during the pandemic related to the intensity of early maladaptive schemas. The performed study has expanded understanding of the mechanisms of vulnerability to psychosocial dysfunction in this group.
The literature review proposed in the article and the results obtained may interest mental health practitioners. They may help develop education activities in distance learning settings during a pandemic and psychological support activities for students focused on correcting negative social interaction experiences and limited autonomy.
Kots, E.M. (2018) Psychological features of cognitive-behavioral strategies of people with social anxiety. - Manuscript [Psihologichni osoblivosti kognItivno-povedinkovih strategiy osib iz sotsialnoyu trivozhnistyu. – Rukopis. Disertatsiya na zdobuttya naukovogo stupenya kandidata psihologichnih nauk za spetsialnistyu 19.00.01 – zagalna psihologiya, Istoriya psihologiyi]. Lesya Ukrainka Volyn National University, Lutsk.
Alonso, J., Angermeyer, M. C., Bernert, S., et al. (2004). Prevalence of mental disorders in Europe: results from the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders (ESEMeD) project. Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica. Supplementum, (420), 21–27. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0047.2004.00327.x
Aristovnik, A., Keržiˇc, D., Ravšelj, D., Tomaževiˇc, N., Umek, L.. (2020) Impacts of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Life of Higher Education Students: A Global Perspective. Sustainability 2020, 12, 8438; doi:10.3390/su12208438
Boden, M. T., John, O. P., Goldin, P. R., Werner, K., Heimberg, R. G., & Gross, J. J. (2012). The role of maladaptive beliefs in cognitive-behavioral therapy: Evidence from social anxiety disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 50, 287–291. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2012.02.007
Daniel, K.E., Goodman, F.R., Beltzer, M.L. et al. (2020). Emotion Malleability Beliefs and Emotion Experience and Regulation in the Daily Lives of People with High Trait Social Anxiety. Cogn Ther Res 44, 1186–1198 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-020-10139-8
De Castella, K., Goldin, P., Jazaieri, H., Ziv, M., Heimberg, R. G., & Gross, J. J. (2014). Emotion beliefs in social anxiety disorder: Associations with stress, anxiety, and well-being. Australian Journal of Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1111/ajpy.12053
Eikenaes, I., Egeland, J., Hummelen, B., & Wilberg, T. (2015). Avoidant personality disorder versus social phobia: the significance of childhood neglect. PloS one, 10(3), e0122846. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122846
Endicott J, Nee J, Harrison W, Blumenthal R. (1993) Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire: A New Measure. Psychopharmacology Bulletin. 29, 321-326.
Frandsen, F.W., Simonsen, S., Poulsen, S., Sørensen, P. and Lau, M.E. (2020), Social anxiety disorder and avoidant personality disorder from an interpersonal perspective. Psychol Psychother Theory Res Pract, 93: 88-104. https://doi.org/10.1111/papt.12214
Hawes, M., Szenczy, A., Klein, D., Hajcak, G., & Nelson, B. (2021). Increases in depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescents and young adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. Psychological Medicine, 1-9. doi:10.1017/S0033291720005358
Heeren, A., Mogoașe, C., Pierre, Ph., McNally, R.J.. (2015) Attention bias modification for social anxiety: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review. 40, 76-90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2015.06.001
Kessler, R. C., Berglund, P., Demler, O., Jin, R., Merikangas, K. R., & Walters, E. E. (2005). Lifetime prevalence and ageof-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62(6), 593–602.
Lampe L. (2016). Avoidant personality disorder as a social anxiety phenotype: risk factors, associations and treatment. Current opinion in psychiatry, 29(1), 64–69. https://doi.org/10.1097/YCO.0000000000000211
Loades, M. E., Chatburn, E., Higson-Sweeney, N., Reynolds, S., Shafran, R., Brigden, A., Linney, C., McManus, M. N., Borwick, C., & Crawley, E. (2020). Rapid Systematic Review: The Impact of Social Isolation and Loneliness on the Mental Health of Children and Adolescents in the Context of COVID-19. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 59(11), 1218–1239.e3. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2020.05.009
National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health. The Improving Access to Psychological Therapies Manual (IAPT). London: National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health. 2018. Retrieved from https://www.england.nhs.uk/publication/the-improving-access-to-psychological-therapies-manual/ (Accessed: 01 November 2018).
Oei, T. P. S., & Baranoff, J. (2007). Young schema questionnaire: Review of psychometric and measurement issues. Australian Journal of Psychology. 59(2), 78–86. https://doi.org/10.1080/00049530601148397
Olivera-La Rosa, A., Chuquichambi, E.G., Ingram, G.P.D. (2020) Keep your (social) distance: Pathogen concerns and social perception in the time of COVID-19. Personality and Individual Differences, 166. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2020.110200.
Stein, D. J., Lim, C. C., Roest, A. M., et al. (2017). The cross-national epidemiology of social anxiety disorder: Data from the world mental health survey initiative. BMC Medicine, 15, 143. doi:10.1186/ s12916-017-0889-2
Regehr, Ch., Glancy, D., Pitts, A. (2013). Interventions to reduce stress in university students: A review and meta-analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders, 148(1), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2012.11.026.
Van Ameringen, M., Mancini, C. & Farvolden, P. (2003). The impact of anxiety disorders on educational achievement. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 17(5), 561-571. Journal of anxiety disorders. 17. 561-71. 10.1016/S0887-6185(02)00228-1.
Spence, S.H., Rapee, R.M. (2016) The etiology of social anxiety disorder: An evidence-based model. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 86, 50-67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2016.06.007
Stein, М.В., Stein, D.J. (2008). Social anxiety disorder. Lancet. 29, 371(9618):1115-25. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60488-2
World Health Organization (2020). Corona virus disease (COVID 19) Situation Report 146. https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200614-covid-19-sitrep-146.pdf?sfvrsn=5b89bdad_6 (Accessed: 14 September 2020).
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Articles in the Psychological Journal are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License International CC-BY that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal. For more detailed information, please, fallow the link - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/