NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE NEUROTICISM NATURE: EVIDENCE FOR A HETEROGENEITY OF CONSTRUCT
Karine Malysheva
Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3903-5799
Serhii Lytvyn
Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2859-1530
PDF 23-35 (Українська)

Keywords

neuropsychology of personality
Big Five
neuroticism
volatility
withdrawal
RDoC
psychogenetics
genome-wide association studies
death anxiety

How to Cite

Malysheva, K., & Lytvyn, S. (2021). NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE NEUROTICISM NATURE: EVIDENCE FOR A HETEROGENEITY OF CONSTRUCT. PSYCHOLOGICAL JOURNAL, 7(9), 23-35. https://doi.org/10.31108/1.2021.7.9.2

Abstract

This work is devoted to the neuropsychological study of personality traits from the point of view of "Big Five" model of personality. The focus is on neuroticism and its neuropsychological correlates in the broader context of the neuroscience. The data on the genetics of neuroticism, the results of neuroimaging studies, and the neurochemical mechanisms of this trait are analyzed. It has been shown that neuroticism as a neuropsychological construct has a heterogeneous structure: an analysis of numerous studies makes it possible to distinguish two relatively independent types of neuroticism, which are associated with specific types of adaptation and different "modus vivendi". Two aspects of neuroticism (according to C.G. DeYoung), such as "volatility" and "withdrawal", from the point of view of genetics, correspond to two endophenotypes: "depressed affect" and "worry". So the processing of aversive stimuli in people with a "volatile" type of neuroticism is mainly manifested in the form of active avoidance of the source of danger, which takes the form of irritability and moodiness. The leading emotional problematic for such people concerns loneliness. The neural circuits that are overactive in this type of neuroticism affect the limbic system, in particular the amygdala. In EEG studies, the role of the left hemisphere, mainly of its frontal regions, has also been established. There is a connection between this aspect and impulsivity, which manifests itself in bad habits, patterns of reproductive and eating behavior. In turn, the "withdrawn" type demonstrates a tendency towards passive avoidance of the source of unpleasant experiences, poverty of expression, and perfectionism. Mental maladjustment takes the form of detachment, "freezing",  practices that indicate emotional decompensation are concerns about the correctness of their decisions and actions. The neural circuits that mediate these behavioral patterns bypass the amygdala and engage the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical loop. EEG studies also revealed the right hemispheric accent of this type of neuroticism. A connection is traced between the psychogenetics of neuroticism, neuropsychological models of the personality trait of neuroticism (as well as its aspects: lability and alienation), as well as the types of defenses against the fear of death, which are offered in the existential approach (by Irwin Yalom). Thus, it seems reasonable to distinguishing two different types of neuroticism, which have an independent genetic origin and a different psychological nature.

 

PDF 23-35 (Українська)

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