PSYCHOLOGICAL JOURNAL <p>'Psychological journal' is a peer-reviewed scientific review, published by H. S. Kostyuk Institute of Psychology of the National Academy of Educational Sciences of Ukraine from 2015 year, 6-12 times a year.</p> <p>The scientific review is listed in Special edition of scientific professional publications of Ukraine (Resolution of the Ministry of Education of Ukraine 22.12.2016 № 1604), and it has The Certificate of state registration of the printed source of mass media in Ukraine (KB № № 21164-10964 Р of 16.12.2014). Attributed ISSN is 2414-0023 for printed journal and 2414-004X for its electronic version.</p> <p>Editorial Board of the Collection consists of at least 42% of international members. The scientific review also publishes the authors with foreign affiliation.</p> <p>Program goals (basic principles) include the development and dissemination of scientific knowledge in the field of psychology. The collection of research papers is published for charitable purposes and intended for free distribution.</p> <p>The scientific review publishes materials, which cover problems of psychological science and practice, promote their wide distribution and overall development of psychological knowledge. The aim of publication is to provide a deeper integration and close cooperation between science and practice, promote the introduction of new scientific and applied research, publish papers of renowned and respected authors and also the papers of young researchers.</p> en-US <p><strong>Copyright Notice</strong></p> <p>Articles in the Psychological Journal are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License International CC-BY that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal. For more detailed information, please, fallow the link -&nbsp;</p> (Klimovskyi Stanislav) (Klimovskyi Stanislav) Thu, 24 May 2018 00:00:00 +0300 OJS 60 ETHICAL DIMENSIONS OF THE PSYCHOLOGIST’S ACTIVITY IN THE PRACTICE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL COUNSELING <p>The article is devoted to comprehension of a problem of ethical dimensions of psychologist’ professional activity. The content of fundamental ethical norms, which regulates the activity of psychologists in the USA, Europe and Ukraine, is analyzed. A comparative analysis of the main categories and requirements of the ethical codes of authoritative international associations of psychologists is carried out. It is established that the ethical principles of psychologists’ professional activity are aimed at the confirmation of universal humanitarian and social values; the main among them is respect for the person, protection of human rights, sense of responsibility, honesty and sincerity in relation to the client, professional competence. The conducted research showed that psychologist’s ethical code is a sufficiently reliable basis for building an effective psychological practice, at the same time it does not resolve all its contradictions, and sometimes comes into collision with the forms of its organization. A number of discussion aspects in the field of ethical regulation of the psychologist’s activities are outlined and ethical dilemmas encountered by a professional in the process of psychological practice are given.</p> <p>An empirical study of psychologist’s and client’s representations of ethical aspects of psychological counseling was carried out using an author’s questionnaire based on the psychologist’s ethical code. The main principles reflected in the ethical code of the European Federation of Professional Psychological Associations were selected as a categories of content analysis of psychologist’s and client’s statements: respect for the client’s rights and dignity, responsibility, competence, honesty and integrity. Content analysis of unfinished sentences, linguistic and semantic analysis of a statement frequency, Student's t-criterion, and Pearson correlation coefficient were used for the data processing.</p> <p>An empirical study found out that psychologist’s representation about ethical principles of the activity is fairly consistent and <a href=";t=65039_1_2">consequential</a>, correspond to the thesis of the ethical code, as well as with the content of client’s representations. At the same time, differences in the psychologist’s and client’s representations about the importance of ethical principles (respect for the client’s rights and dignity, responsibility, competence, honesty and integrity) and emotional aspects of interaction, psychologist’s recommendations are pinpointed. This is determined by the different focus of psychologist’s and client’s attention during counseling: more psychologists’ orientation on a certain “framework” and the rules of interaction, and client’s – in fact, on emotional support, which reflects the various but interdepended parts of counseling. At the same time, ethical requirements, not being the subject of work with the client, provide security, trust, cooperation – the exactly conditions which are the basis of effective psychological assistance to the client.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Tetiana Yablonska, Natalia Bulatevych ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 04 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +0300 COMMUNICATIVE SITUATIONS: THE STANDARD AND THE CONFLICT ONES <p>The study of communicative situations is one of the most important areas of research in domestic and foreign science. The interaction of people and their contacts often give rise to collisions caused by contradictions of goals, views, interests, points of view etc., which, unfortunately, can lead to a conflict situation.</p> <p>If to talk about the standard communicative situation, it should be noted that most researchers pick out five or six its components, but often the same components get different names in different interpretations.</p> <p>Also it has repeatedly been emphasized that understanding between communicants is necessary for successful communication. Understanding occurs when interlocutors use the same linguistic code, if the communication channel is not blocked, and the communicators have the ability to encode and decode the information correctly, that is, they have the same system of codification and decoding of speech signs and signals.</p> <p>Thus, the processes of verbalization and understanding play a leading role in the implementation of the communicative act and, therefore, directly belong to its structure as the dominant components.</p> <p>The model of the standard communicative situation shows that the communicator (the addresser) with his/her own communicative goals communicates with the other communicator (the addressee), which also has certain communicative and practical goals, and implements the communicative text, using the appropriate code in certain circumstances. If communicants have similar ideas of the communicative goals of each other or towards the distribution of communicative roles, communication is realized in the form of cooperation. If the communicant chooses the wrong line of behaviour, the communicants’ intentions will lose their mutual agreement, and if they can not neutralize the negative impact of their actions on the communicative act, the latter may end up in a communicative failure (either complete or incomplete) and this leads to the emergence of communicative conflicts.</p> <p>In such a way, in live communicative situations the communicant simultaneously: a)&nbsp;perceives and accordingly evaluates information from the partner in the communication, b)&nbsp;calculates the type of relationships, which might be established with the partner in the communication. That is why both communicative failures and conflicts are not so rare.</p> <p>The conflict communicative situation is characterized by structural and dynamic characteristics. Structural characteristics include, as a rule, communicative discomfort, communicative failure, communicative inconsistency, communicative misunderstanding, communicative disputing, etc. These characteristics are explicated at the stages of the development of conflict situation. Stages of conflict situation consist of the pre-conflict stage (origin, maturation, incident), the stage of the conflict itself (conflict, conflict development), and the stage of the consequences of a conflict situation (or post-conflict situation). Dynamic characteristics of the conflict include, as a rule, the conditions and circumstances of the communication, the contradiction between the communicative and practical goals of the communicants, the results of communication, personal characteristics of the subjects of communication, as well as the situations of cognitive dissonance and “conflict-genes”, the violation of processes of verbalization and understanding, differences in social status of communicators, etc.</p> <p>From a practical point of view, the typology of conflict situations is very important, since it allows us to navigate through specific manifestations of conflict and, therefore, helps to assess possible ways of resolving them and achieving consensus.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Dmytro Bihunov ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 24 May 2018 00:00:00 +0300 THE PROBLEM OF EMPATHY IN PSYCHOLOGY AND ITS IMPORTANCE IN THE PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF A PSYCHOLOGIST <p>Article is deals with the analysis of the phenomenon of empathy as a complex comprehensive psychic phenomenon, the essence of which – in the condolence and compassion to another person on the basis of perception of her internal state, the ability to put oneself in the place of the suffering person, and look at the situation with her eyes, understand her thoughts and experiences.</p> <p>It is noted that in psychology scientists are comprehensively studied the concept, types, forms and mechanisms of empathy, its structure and role in the formation of altruistic helping behavior and life activity of a person in general, but in the research of this phenomenon there is much uncertainty and controversy.</p> <p>The purpose of this paper is to theoretically analyze various aspects of understanding of empathy in psychology and empirically investigate the level of empathy of future psychologists and its connection with their personal characteristics.</p> <p>We note that we are not ready to recognize empathy as a purely emotional process, because we perceive in it, in addition to emotional, not only cognitive and behavioral components: at a conscious level, empathy is the “comprehension” of the internal state of another person, and appropriate to the situation supporting and helping behavior of the subject of empathy; on an unconscious level (about which, in particular, testifies to the inability to control this process) empathy (as synchronization with someone else's experiences and involuntary involvement in the inner world of another person) is the result of a peculiar of non-sensory intuitive insight of the experiences of another person, transmission by them and temporary identification with the object of empathy.</p> <p>The following techniques: to determine the level of subjective control (LSC test) by J.&nbsp;Rotter, adaptation of E. F. Vazhin, S. A. Golynkina, A. M. Aktind; diagnostics of the level of empathic abilities V.V. Boyko; “Scale of emotional response”, technique of diagnostics of empathy by A.Megrabian and N. Epshtein; Manifest Anxiety Scale (MAS) J. Taylor, adaptation of T.A. Nemchin), – were used in the empirical study</p> <p>The results of the empirical study indicate that, despite the fact that empathy is a professionally important quality of a psychologist, its development in students − future psychologists is inadequate (mostly low and lower). The exception is the emotional component of empathy, which in most of the respondents is manifested at a high level, correlated with anxiety and the internal level of subjective control of personality.</p> <p>It is concluded that empathy (as a complex psychological phenomenon) is often understood as: the process of understanding of the mental state of another person; the ability to put oneself in its place and feel everything (thoughts, feelings, meanings, etc.), how this person feels; condolence for another person for her suffering, which transforms into a desire to help her; in psychotherapy, another feature of empathy is added: a message to a person who is experiencing negative events or life situations, the completeness of the “entry” of the therapist into her emotional state, that the client is actually heard and understood.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Yan Chaplak ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 24 May 2018 00:00:00 +0300 EMPATHY IN THE CONTEXT OF MORAL FEELINGS <p>Article deals with the theoretical analysis of understanding of the phenomena of empathy, guilt and shame in psychology, the relationship between them and the empirical study of their manifestation in the students of “helping” professions; which became the goal of this work.</p> <p>It is stated that empathy as a condolences for the person suffering, compassion to her on the basis of understanding of her internal state of another person and the intuitive sensation of the situation in which this human appeared, the feeling of guilt as dissatisfaction with himself through the misbehavior before another person, inconsistency of one’s own behavior and moral norms of society, and shame (as awareness of one’s own imperfection in certain situation, inability to accomplish the task, accompanied by negative experiences through the condemnation of the deed by other people) are the complex psychological phenomena related to morality and conscientiousness of human, his ability to take responsibility for his bad deeds.</p> <p>It is shown that modern psychology distinguishes several types of empathy: emotional, cognitive (rational), intuitive, behavioral and predicative. However, understanding empathy as a complex and integrated in fact manifestations of the phenomenon, we consider it is not so much separate types of empathy, how many different components of the whole process of empathy. The various components of the empathy, which in general form the phenomenon of empathy, may be dominant in the empathy process, depending on the situation and on the personality.</p> <p>It is noted that concerning to the difference between the emotions of shame and guilt, we support the opinion that the presence of a third person is a required condition for experience of shame, while the experience of guilt can “overtake” a person both alone and in the absence of an actual source of punishment.</p> <p>Methods of the measurement of level of empathic abilities (V. V. Boyko) and “Test of Self-Conscious Affect (TOSCA)” J. P. Tangney were used in the research. It was revealed that future psychologists are statistically significantly stronger experiencing feeling of guilt, are more empathic in general and more easily identifying themselves with people who sympathize with than future physicians.</p> <p>It was concluded that development of empathy of future physicians more often incline them to experience the feeling of shame, whereas psychologists with developed empathy are equally experiencing both moral feelings: guilt and shame – which promotes the development of their conscientiousness and responsibility for their deeds.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Halyna Chuyko ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 24 May 2018 00:00:00 +0300 PSYCHOLOGICAL CULTURE OF FUTURE EVENT MANAGERS: MANAGERIAL SKILLS <p>The article is devoted to the system of psychological managerial skills, which helps to maximize the level of managerial efficiency development and formation of the psychological culture of future event managers. The purpose of the article is to construct a space of psychological characteristics of professionally significant skills and, with its help, the development of psychological mechanisms for improving the effectiveness of leadership in the field of culture and leisure.</p> <p>As a result of the study of literature, judgments about the skills of managers, which on the semantic level (hypothetically) contain the largest psychological component, were selected.</p> <p>Professionally significant skills and abilities as a psychological factor of effective management implies a higher level of personal skills development, which is manifested at the marginal level of automation of key advertising skills based on the use of psychological knowledge and patterns, and spontaneous adaptability in their practical application and easy situational modification.</p> <p>Professionally significant skills and abilities are considered as a separate scale for measuring the degree of managerial mastery skills development.</p> <p>&nbsp; The system of psychological skills of the event manager&nbsp; is an integrative style that combines stereotyped choices of styles in certain types of managerial situations. The categories of managerial skills and their components are in system interaction, and the specific actions of managers - is a systemic effect of the interaction of skills at the moment.</p> <p>A significant problem in the formation of specific skills is that due to the characteristics of the typical learning process, the growth of skills stops at the first level of the scale of the level of development of skills − intellectual acquainted, that initially not realized, and then causes disappointment studies. The real skill requires a large number of repetitions, which within the educational process provides only training. That is, the actual problem of the formation of psychological culture, both methodical and organizational − in the absence of a learning process of full-scale system trainings. It is necessary to admit that existing models of teaching with prevailing of lectures, seminars and even workshops actually generate managerial dilettantism, limiting skills at the lowest level in the scale of skill − at the level of information acquaintance.</p> <p>The real problem of forming the psychological culture of the event managers is the problem of developing and implementing systematic training psychological technologies for the development of managerial skills.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Galina  Kot ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 24 May 2018 00:00:00 +0300