PSYCHOLOGICAL JOURNAL http://www.apsijournal.com/index.php/psyjournal <p>'Psychological journal' is a peer-reviewed scientific review, published by H. S. Kostyuk Institute of Psychology of the National Academy of Educational Sciences of Ukraine from 2015 year, 6-12 times a year.</p> <p>The scientific review is listed in Special edition of scientific professional publications of Ukraine (Resolution of the Ministry of Education of Ukraine 22.12.2016 № 1604), and it has The Certificate of state registration of the printed source of mass media in Ukraine (KB № № 21164-10964 Р of 16.12.2014). Attributed ISSN is 2414-0023 for printed journal and 2414-004X for its electronic version.</p> <p>Editorial Board of the Collection consists of at least 42% of international members. The scientific review also publishes the authors with foreign affiliation.</p> <p>Program goals (basic principles) include the development and dissemination of scientific knowledge in the field of psychology. The collection of research papers is published for charitable purposes and intended for free distribution.</p> <p>The scientific review publishes materials, which cover problems of psychological science and practice, promote their wide distribution and overall development of psychological knowledge. The aim of publication is to provide a deeper integration and close cooperation between science and practice, promote the introduction of new scientific and applied research, publish papers of renowned and respected authors and also the papers of young researchers.</p> Інститут психології імені Г. С. Костюка Національної академії педагогічних наук України en-US PSYCHOLOGICAL JOURNAL 2414-0023 <p><strong>Copyright Notice</strong></p> <p>Articles in the Psychological Journal are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License International CC-BY that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal. For more detailed information, please, fallow the link -&nbsp;https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/</p> FEATURES OF THE SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS FORMATION OF TEENAGERS WITH VIOLATIONS IN PRONUNCIATION OF SOUNDS http://www.apsijournal.com/index.php/psyjournal/article/view/463 <p>On the basis of many theoretical and experimental studies the article envisages the formation of teenagers’ self-consciousness to be based on the “Me-concept” of personality including a dynamic system of self-representations, covering cognitive, emotional and evaluative, and behavioral components. It is proved that consciousness is closely related to speech activities. The act of consciousness is the formation of perceptions of oneself that is not possible without speech. Self-consciousness is the result of the development of activities and intercourse. It is described that in the teenage age the leading activity is intimate-personal communication, therefore the awareness of oneself as a personality takes place among teenagers, first of all, in the process of teenagers’ intercourse with peers. During this period, teenagers are acutely experiencing disadvantages in the process of their speech, they easily notice non-standard or irregular forms of speech and violations in the pronunciation of sounds. It is established that there is a correlation between the nature of violations in the pronunciation of sounds and the peculiarities of self-consciousness among teenagers. This allowed us to find that the level of self-consciousness development of teenagers with violations in the pronunciation of sounds hardly differs from the age norm, but certain differences are still present. It is proved that the level of expressiveness of the difference depends on the nature of speech disorders and personality-based traits of a teenager. It is studied that children with fuzzy, but close to normal, pronunciation of sounds shouldn’t have significant effect on the formation of self-consciousness. It is experimentally found that teenagers with significant disorders in pronunciation of sounds are poorly understood by others, and this affects their position in the classroom, leads to bullying, lacks confidence, understated self-esteem, inferiority complexity, increased criticality to oneself, causing a difference between “Me-real” and “Me-ideal” and it leads to negative personality formations, as a result, they are more vulnerable and aggressive. The implementation of speech therapy correction and psychological support in the form of counseling, trainings, self-development programs, keeping diaries of self-examination, etc. are actual to overcome these negative personality-based new formations.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Nataliia Didyk Liana Onufriieva ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-27 2018-12-27 20 10 9 28 10.31108/10.31108/1.2018.10.10.1 THE SYSTEM OF EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONS AS A NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL CORRELATE OF TOLERANCE TO UNCERTAINTY http://www.apsijournal.com/index.php/psyjournal/article/view/465 <p>This article deals with the neuropsychological correlates of tolerance for uncertainty. The research focuses primarily on the study of executory functions (which are provided by the structures of the prefrontal cortex). The results of a comprehensive theoretical analysis of executing functions in the context of tolerance for uncertainty are presented.</p> <p>To ensure the full consideration of the executive functions as a neuropsychological correlate of tolerance to uncertainty, the adaptive value of the functions of the orbitofrontal cortex, dorsolateral cortex and ventromedial cortex was reviewed.</p> <p>The focus is primarily on such executive functions as planning, choosing, observing and changing behavioral strategies, ensuring spontaneity and flexibility of behavior (aspects of tolerance to uncertainty, which are provided by the dorsolateral cortex), orientation to the future and inhibition of automatic reactions (aspects of tolerance to uncertainty provided by the orbitofrontal cortex), a system of “somatic markers”, which is closely related to decision making in situations where explicit learning is compromised (dimension tolerance to uncertainty, which is provided by the operation of the ventromedial cortex).</p> <p>Thus, for further research on the neuropsychological correlates of uncertainty tolerance, it is suggested to focus on the executory functions of the ventromedial cortex — the system of somatic markers. Based on the theoretical analysis, it can be argued that the system of “somatic markers” is activated precisely in conditions where it is necessary to make decisions but explicit information is inaccessible (namely, adaptive solutions).</p> <p>The use of diagnostic techniques that have detailed instructions and substantially structured stimulus material is not recommended for studying neuropsychological correlates of tolerance for uncertainty. The main condition for a reliable diagnosis of tolerance for uncertainty is the use of psychodiagnostic techniques, including ambivalent stimuli.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Serhii Lytvyn ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-27 2018-12-27 20 10 29 46 10.31108/1.2018.10.20.2 STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS OF RESISTANCE TO COMBAT-PSYCHOLOGICAL TRAUMA IN LAW ENFORCEMENT – COMBATANTS http://www.apsijournal.com/index.php/psyjournal/article/view/479 <p>The article presents the results of an empirical study of the factor structure of resistance to combat psychological trauma among unsafe type law enforcement officers with a different level of trauma of combat experience.</p> <p>The distinguished six-factor structure of resistance to combat psychological trauma among ascending law enforcement officers with a low level of trauma of combat experience: the first factor is indicated as: “Limited professionalism”; The second factor is designated as: “Self-relation − as a source of change”; the third factor is designated as “Socially active life position”; the fourth factor is “Self-incrimination as a manifestation of uncertainty in one’s ability to overcome dangerous situations”; the fifth factor was labeled “Warning Hazard” (belief in the ability to avoid danger); The sixth factor is designated as “Image (conditional) courage”.</p> <p>Ascending law enforcement officers with an average level of trauma of combat experience, the six-factor structure of resistance to combat psychological traumatization is as follows: the first significant factor is “Acute need for help”; the second factor is “Acute need to set the structure of the situation, as opposed to the feeling of own powerlessness, loss of control”; the third factor “Egocentricity as a reaction to frustration”; the fourth factor is “Helplessness”; the fifth factor is “disorientation”; The sixth factor, “The desire to assert itself.”</p> <p>&nbsp;The structure of resistance to trauma among ascending law enforcement officers with a high (acquired) level of trauma of combat experience combines both the poles of its development: the first factor “Perception of one's own competence as unique”; the second factor is “The internality of professional achievements”; the third factor “Mental intolerance”; the fourth factor is the “inferiority complex”; the fifth factor is “The desire to return to family measured life"; the sixth factor is “Mental (not directed at external adaptation) adaptation.”</p> <p>It has been studied that ascending types of law enforcement officers increase the load on their own resources with increasing levels of psycho-traumatic combat experience. So, due to lack of professional identity and the formation of professionally important qualities, the prospect of participating in hostilities actualizes the memories of the stressful situation, increases anxiety and self-doubt. Fear of not responding to the expectations of colleagues closes for representatives of this group the opportunity to use the help of their professional group and take over their experience, with an average level of psycho-traumatic combat experience leads to the need to adapt their “civilian” experience to overcome emotionally similar combat situations. With a high level of psycho-traumatic combat experience, the right guard has a forced decrease in all activities not related to survival; professional skills continue to be formed at the expense of general competence, and the desire to gain access to the resources of a professional group, to earn its approving attitude pushes for desperate, courageous actions.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Oleksandr Kolesnychenko ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-27 2018-12-27 20 10 47 60 10.31108/1.2018.10.20.3 THE PSYCHOLOGICAL HELP DURING EXPERIENCING OF LOSS - CAN WE HELP PEOPLE TO EXPERIENCE THEIR GRIEF? http://www.apsijournal.com/index.php/psyjournal/article/view/467 <p>The headnotegives reasonsfor the research actuality of problem of loss and grief experiencing, including perished law enforcement officers` wives in Ukraine, providing them with psychological advising and necessary psychological help on the basis of modern scientific heritage, world and local practical experience.</p> <p>Common factors of the psychical and physical personality functioning are considered while experiencing ofsignificant person death. The special attention was attended to the researches that studied influence of significant person sudden death on the futurelife.</p> <p>Scientists contend that an unexpected deathin particularis one of principal reasons of development of pathological reactions of experiencing grief that in modern scientific literature is also known as&nbsp; difficult grief, traumatic grief, prolongedmourning disorder. These disorders are related to functional violations, declining living standards, and with the increase of diseases level, both psychical (depression, anxiety, deadaptationetc.) and somatic ones.</p> <p>Researches of persistent complex disorders of the members of the perished servicemen`s families, conducted by the American scientists, confirm that the circumstances of death and relation in family have an influence on intensity of grief experiencing.</p> <p>The researches examiningsocio-economic factors influence on grief experiencing are presented. Not only in the countries of the third world but also in the developed European countriesthe social position, a low level of education and belonging to women sex are factors influencing on forming of complicated grief.</p> <p>The research aimsare study of psychotherapy features at grief experiencing on the basis of researches of scientists from different countries of the world and the parallel analysis,&nbsp; what factors psychotherapy influences on and whether it is effective.</p> <p>The basic part reviewed the basic theoretical and practical approaches to the near determination of psychological help.</p> <p>A social help is considered as first one, most natural and accessible. It can provide a buffer effect and prevent stress factors influence on other spheres of life. However,it is necessary to take into account that significant person`s death brings both to social and to emotional loneliness. Social support diminishes the level of social loneliness, but can not influence on emotional one, which is essential in grief experiencing.</p> <p>Professional, psychological help efficiency was also examined on an analysis of earlier studies.</p> <p>Now in scientific society a discussionis actively conducted, concerning psychological help influence on the process of grief experiencing. Some scientists came to the conclusions, that there are no confirmations of positive results of psychotherapy. Furthermore, it is considered that psychological interference can influence on the dynamics of normal grief.</p> <p>However, practically all scientists agree, that psychological help is necessarywhile experiencing of the complicated grief. It is also specified on that pathological reactions can be avoided withthe systematic psychological accompaniment.There are some contradictions that suggest an idea about positive influence of psychological accompaniment.</p> <p>The researches conducted in England, Germany, Turkey, Ukraine indicate positive dynamics of influence of the programs of psychological help.</p> <p>In a conclusion practicability of synthesis of social support and psychological help at significant person death is stated.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Larisa Rybyk ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-27 2018-12-27 20 10 61 77 10.31108/1.2018.10.20.4 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF TRANSFORMATIONS OF SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL PRACTICES OF MARRIAGE AND FAMILY PARTNERSHIP AND PATERNITY http://www.apsijournal.com/index.php/psyjournal/article/view/468 <p>&nbsp; On the example of marriage and family practices as products of constructing the reality of a certain cultural-historical space reveals the psycho-historical reconstruction of the family, marriage and paternity. It is noted that the social content of the family, which is inscribed in the framework of the disposition of nepotism, indicated its socialization by the state, where regulation is carried out using the system of roles, norms, structural and functional organization of marriage and family practices and control over sexuality.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The processes of industrialization, the sexual revolution and women's emancipation have become a catalyst for changes in the views on marriage, family and paternity. According to the author, the liberalization of sexual relations in the context of the historical events of that time is aimed at destroying the “bourgeois” family as a social unit and egalitarian experiments: communes, free love and legitimizing the practices of the mono-mother family. It is noted that sexual relations without intent to continue another kind of connections - marriage and procreation - paternity found the instability of the matrix "disposition of family", which are considered as the beginning of the process of its deconstruction. The delimitation of sexual relations from reproductive function left the practice of sexual partnership outside the disposition of nepotism, thus laying new rules of behavioral culture in the sphere of marriage and family relations.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; It is concluded that the disposition of nepotism as a matrix of changes in the practices of family, marriage and paternity cultivated by society, in a different social environment, is changing. The functioning of the practices of civil partnership and mono-mother families led to a break in relations: sexuality - reproduction and marriage - paternity, which are considered as signals of institutional transformations of the family, marriage and fatherhood. The delimitation of sexual practices from the disposition of the family in a historical perspective allowed the construction of configurations where the bond breaks: sex - gender not only diversified the functional-role relationships of men / women, but also indicated the depth of changes in the institutions of family, marriage and paternity.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Olena Yatsyna ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-27 2018-12-27 20 10 78 90 10.31108/1.2018.10.20.5