PSYCHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF RADIATION RISK PERCEPTION

Main Article Content

Maryna Нresko

Abstract

The purpose of the study was to determine the subjective features of the perception of radiation risk and to determine its place among other hazards in the remote period after the Chernobyl disaster.


Object and methods: Participated in the study: 122 liquidators (group 1); 76 liquidators, who were also evacuated from the exclusion zone (group 2); 118 people evacuated from the exclusion zone (group 3). The comparison group was 84 people (group 4). 81 participants of the ATО (5 - group) were also interviewed.


Results of the study: In the comparison group, significantly less (p<0.001) fewer persons with hypertrophied perception of radiation threat compared to the main groups. The highest percentage of respondents with hypertrophied perception of radiation threat are in group II (81,54%), where respondents were exposed to the risk of exposure and evacuation as a result of the Chernobyl accident. In the group of ATO participants there are 31,34% of persons with hypertrophied perception of radiation threat.


The actual “national conflicts” factor currently occupies among the groups affected by the Chernobyl accident: 22nd, 26th and 18th ranked place, 17th in the comparison group, while among the participants of the ATO - 11th place. However, the high concern of ATО participants with such a radiation factor as the diseases associated with the presence of radioactive substances in the environment (rank 7), caused by using a “dirty bomb” in the territory of the ATO, can lead to additional traumatic effects on ATО participants and will intensify the maladaptive reactions. A high assessment of the radiation hazard of the I, II and III groups interviewed, indicates the relevance for them of such a stressful event in their life as an accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant.


The hypertrophied perception of the radiation threat in groups of liquidators and evacuees from the exclusion zone correlates with heightened concern about the nuclear industry, the presence of radioactive substances in air, soil, and products (p<0,001). Inadequate perception of radiation risk correlates with the degree of psychological stress from the Chernobyl accident (in all groups p <0.001), the degree of psychological stress from evacuation (II p<0,001, III p<0,01), concern about possible accidents and malfunctions to this time at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (I and II p<0,001, III p<0,05) with concern about the effect of radiation on health (p<0,001), social changes (p<0,001) and negative changes in the economic situation due to the Chernobyl accident (p<0,001).


Conclusions: Problems of radiation safety after the Chernobyl accident disturb all respondents and are perceived as highly significant by different groups of the population. Radiation accident is a mental trauma with a complex configuration of traumatic effects that go beyond the limits of ordinary human experience. The obtained data will help to predict social disadaptation and will contribute to the creation of psycho-correctional and psychotherapeutic programs.


 

Article Details

How to Cite
НreskoM. (2017) “PSYCHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF RADIATION RISK PERCEPTION”, PSYCHOLOGICAL JOURNAL, 10(6), pp. 35-50. Available at: http://www.apsijournal.com/index.php/psyjournal/article/view/167 (Accessed: 25April2018).
Section
Статьи
Author Biography

Maryna Нresko, National Research Center for Radiation Medicine of National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine

Junior researcher in The Department of Radiation Psychoneurology of The State Institution «National Research Center for Radiation Medicine of National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine», Kiev (Ukraine)

 

References

1. Буртовая Е. Ю. Психосоциальные аспекты переселения жителей села Муслюмово Челябиской области вследствие чрезвычайных ситуаций на производственном объединении «Маяк»/ Е.Ю. Буртовая, А.В. Аклеев, С.А. Шалагинов // Медико-биологические и социально-психологические проблемы безопасности в чрезвычайных ситуациях. – 2011. – №2. – С. 105 – 108.
2. Дворянчиков Н. В. Особенности восприятия и переживания «невидимого» стресса военнослужащими, работающими с источниками ионизирующих излучений/ Н.В. Дворянчиков, Н.В. Стариченко, С.Н. Ениколопов // Журнал практического психолога. – 2005. – Вып. 1. – С. 49 – 63.
3. Моляко В. А. Формирование образа экологической катастрофы на примере Чернобыльской атомной аварии / В.А. Моляко // Вопр. психол. – 1992.– №5-6. – С. 16–22.
4. Моляко В. О. Психологічні наслідки чорнобильскої катастрофи/ В.О. Моляко // Збірник наукових праць Інституту психології ім. Г.С. Костюка АПН України» Актуальні проблеми психології» у 12 томаї / за ред. В.О. Моляко. – Т12. – Вип. 12 – Житомир: вид-во ЖДУ ім. І. Франка, 2010. – С. 8 – 21.
5. Павленко Т. О Вимоги до організації просвітницької роботи з населенням щодо радіаційних ризиків опромінення /Павленко Т.О., Аксьонов М.В., Фризюк М.А., Турос О.І., Герман О.О. //Гігієна населених місць. – 2011. – №57. – С. 276– 279.
6. Прилипко В. А Екологічні та соціальні фактори ризику у формуванні здоров`я населення / Прилипко В.А., Озерова Ю.Ю., Пустовіт І. // І-й Всеукраїнський з’їзд екологів: міжнар. наук.-техн. конф.: тези допов. 2006. – С. 325.
7. Румянцева Г. М. Проблемы восприятия и субъективной оценки риска от ионизирующей радиации / Г.М. Румянцева, О.В. Чинкина //Радиационная гигиена. Т2– №3 – 2009. С. 50 – 58.
8. Социальное самочувствие населения в условиях повышенного экологического риска (По результатам Чернобыльской аварии). Научный доклад / РАН. Ин-т социологии. Центр общечеловеческих ценностей. М., 1992.
9. Тарасюк О. Є. Рівень знань щодо радіаційного фактора та сприйняття радіаційного ризику молоддю міста Славутич / О.Є. Тарасюк, І.П. Лось, Н.Д. Шабуніна, Т.Є. Нездемовська //Enviroxment Health. – 2013 – №1, – С 33 – 38.
10. Чинкина О. В. Радиационная авария как психическая травма: психологическая переработка воздействия на отдаленном этапе / О.В. Чинкина // Архів психіатрії. – 2011. – № 1(64), С. 21 – 26.
11. Bromet E. J. Emotional consequences of nuclear power plant disasters / E.J. Bromet // Health Phys. – 2014. – Vol.106, no.2. – P. 206 – 10.
12. Bromet E. J. Psychological and perceived health effects of the Chernobyl disaster: a 20-year review / E.J. Bromet,  J.M. Havenaar // Health Phys. – 2007. – Vol.5. – P. 516-21.
13. Perko T. Radiation risk perception:a discrepancy between the experts and the general population. / T. Perko // J Environ Radioact. – 2014. – Vol. 133. – P. 86 – 91.
14. Suzuki Y. Psychological distress and the perception of radiation risks: the Fukushima health management survey /Y. Suzuki at all // Bull World Health Organ. – 2015. – Vol.93. – P. 598 – 605.

References (Transliteration):

1. Burtovaya E. Yu Psihosotsialnyie aspektyi pereseleniya zhiteley sela Muslyumovo Chelyabiskoy oblasti vsledstvie chrezvyichaynyih situatsiy na proizvodstvennom ob'edinenii «Mayak»/ E.Yu. Burtovaya, A.V. Akleev, S.A. Shalaginov // Mediko-biologicheskie i sotsialno-psihologicheskie problemyi bezopasnosti v chrezvyichaynyih situatsiyah. – 2011. – №2. – S. 105 – 108.
2. Dvoryanchikov N. V. Osobennosti vospriyatiya i perezhivaniya «nevidimogo» stressa voennosluzhaschimi, rabotayuschimi s istochnikami ioniziruyuschih izlucheniy/ N.V. Dvoryanchikov, N.V. Starichenko, S.N. Enikolopov // Zhurnal prakticheskogo psihologa. – 2005. – Vyip. 1. – S. 49 – 63.
3. Molyako V. A. Formirovanie obraza ekologicheskoy katastrofyi na primere Chernobyilskoy atomnoy avarii / V.A. Molyako // Vopr. psihol. – 1992.– №5-6. – S. 16–22.
4. Molyako V. O. Psihologichni naslidki chornobilskoyi katastrofi/ V.O. Molyako // ZbIrnik naukovih prats Institutu psihologiyi Im. G.S. Kostyuka APN UkraYini» Aktualni problemi psihologiyi» u 12 tomaYi / za red. V.O. Molyako. – T12. – Vip. 12 – Zhitomir: vid-vo ZhDU Im. I. Franka, 2010. – S. 8 – 21.
5. Pavlenko T. O Vimogi do organIzatsiy prosvitnitskoyi roboti z naselennyam schodo radiatsiynih rizikIv opromInennya /Pavlenko T.O., Aksonov M.V., Frizyuk M.A., Turos O.I., German O.O. //Gigiena naselenih mIsts. – 2011. – №57. – S. 276– 279.
6. Prilipko V. A Ekologichni ta sotsialni faktori riziku u formuvannI zdorov`ya naselennya / Prilipko V.A., Ozerova Yu.Yu., PustovIt I. // I-y Vseukrayinskiy z’yizd ekologiv: mizhnar. nauk.-tehn. konf.: tezi dopov. 2006. – S. 325.
7. Rumyantseva G. M. Problemyi vospriyatiya i sub'ektivnoy otsenki riska ot ioniziruyuschey radiatsii / G.M. Rumyantseva, O.V. Chinkina //Radiatsionnaya gigiena. T2– №3 – 2009. S. 50 – 58.
8. Sotsialnoe samochuvstvie naseleniya v usloviyah povyishennogo ekologicheskogo riska (Po rezultatam Chernobyilskoy avarii). Nauchnyiy doklad / RAN. In-t sotsiologii. Tsentr obschechelovecheskih tsennostey. M., 1992.
9. Tarasyuk O. E. Riven znan schodo radiatsiynogo faktora ta spriynyattya radiatsiynogo riziku moloddyu mista Slavutich / O.E. Tarasyuk, I.P. Los, N.D. ShabunIna, T.E. Nezdemovska //Enviroxment Health. – 2013 – №1, – S 33 – 38.
10. Chinkina O. V. Radiatsionnaya avariya kak psihicheskaya travma: psihologicheskaya pererabotka vozdeystviya na otdalennom etape / O.V. Chinkina // ArhIv psihIatrIYi. – 2011. – № 1(64), S. 21 – 26.
11. Bromet E. J. Emotional consequences of nuclear power plant disasters / E.J. Bromet // Health Phys. – 2014. – Vol.106, no.2. – P. 206 – 10.
12. Bromet E. J. Psychological and perceived health effects of the Chernobyl disaster: a 20-year review / E.J. Bromet,  J.M. Havenaar // Health Phys. – 2007. – Vol.5. – P. 516-21.
13. Perko T. Radiation risk perception:a discrepancy between the experts and the general population. / T. Perko // J Environ Radioact. – 2014. – Vol. 133. – P. 86–91.
14. Suzuki Y. Psychological distress and the perception of radiation risks: the Fukushima health management survey /Y. Suzuki at all // Bull World Health Organ. – 2015. – Vol.93. – P. 598– 605.